There are several unique characteristics that affect rod performance and used to define rod uses: power, action, length and number of pieces, material, line weight and lure weight. Understanding those characteristics helps to choose the right rod that are light, sensitive, and powerful, suitable for specific fishing situations.
A good rod will allow you to place your bait or lure exactly where you want it, presents it as quietly as possible, helps for better line and lure control. It helps during the fish fighting, to feel even the smallest unthinkable bites and much more of what's going on with your bait.
The rod weight indicates its strength. There are seven fundamental categories of rod weights: ultra light, light, medium light, medium, medium heavy, heavy, and extra heavy. To choose the right Fishing Rod weight you can use this rule: the right Fishing Rod's weight depends on how big and/or how heavy the lure you'll be using, and/or how big the fish you wish to catch is. The bigger the fish and/or the bigger or heavier the lure, the heavier the Fishing Rod you need. So a heavy action rod would probably have a lure weight range from 1oz and up, while an Ultra-Light may have a lure range from 1/32 oz and up to approximately 1/8oz.
The Rod Action classifies the amount of the rod that flexes when it is loaded with a lure. The general designations are Slow, Medium, Fast, and Extra-Fast.
Slow action rods flex across the whole length of the rod up to the grips. Medium action rods bend over around the upper half of the rod, Fast action rods flex over about one-third of tip, and Extra-Fast rods bend over only about one-fourth of the tip. Each type of action has its application and different people may use different actions for the same purpose.
The weight of the rod relates to the relative strength of the rod all things being equal. A heavy rod is capable of handling heavy lures and it is heavy. A light rod handles small lures, and it is light. A heavy rod is more tiring to use than a lighter rod. You can move fish out of cover with a heavy rod. You can flip baits with a light rod all day. The weight of the rod determines optimal line strength, a heavier rod handling higher line, a lighter rod handling lighter line. You're going to be able to cast a light lure best with a light rod with slow rod action, and if you use a heavy rod with fast rod action that crappie jig will fall far beside you.
If you are jigging, or Texas-rigging you would prefer to use an Extra-Fast tip for the sensitivity. If you are mojo-rigging you would prefer a fast action because it allows the fish to load the rod before setting the hook. If you are a Steelhead fisherman the "Noodle" type rods with a slow action would be considered. They allow the fisherman to use lighter line while fishing because the rod help mitigate the load on the line. However, the slower the action of the rod, the harder it is to get a good hookset because less force is applied directly to the fish.
When you are using crankbaits, you are always casting, and you wish to have as long casts as possible. In order than you can feel accurately what the crankbait is hitting you would want sensitivity. Also you want a reasonable amount of backbone in the rod to set hooks, but you want flex to the rod to keep the treble hooks from pulling out. It means you want to use a medium weight, medium action rod.
Fishing worms or jigs, you want sensitivity in the rod tip to feel fish beating the bait, and you don't want a lot of rod flex because you are pulling a fish out of cover when fishing works, or potentially from deep when jigging. But you will be holding the rod tip up for significant periods of time, means you need a very light rod, you want to use a medium weight, fast action rod.
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A rod is usually also classified by the optimal weight of fishing line or in the case of fly rods, fly line the rod should handle. Fishing line weight is described in pounds of tensile force before the line parts. Line weight for a rod is expressed as a range that the rod is designed to support. Fly rod weights are typically expressed as a number from 1 to 12, written as "7wt" etc. and each weight represents a standard weight in grains for the first 30 feet of the fly line established by the American Fishing Tackle Manufacturing Association. For example, the first 30' of a 6wt fly line should weigh between 152-168 grains, with the optimal weight being 160 grains. In casting and spinning rods, designations such as "8-15 lb. line" are typical.
A rod's Action and Power may change when line weight is greater or lesser than the rod's specified range. When the line weight used greatly exceeds a rod's specifications a rod may break before the line parts. When the line weight is significantly less than the rod's recommended range the line may part prematurely, as the rod cannot fully flex to accommodate the pull of a given weight fish.
So the next time you have a chance to buy a new rod, consider what rod action and rod weight might fit a fishing condition where you're currently missing a lot of fish. You need to mix the action and the weight in a manner to permit you has the best rod for the fishing condition. Having the right rod for the condition is going to result in more fish hooked.
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The length of the fishing rod is very important factor to consider.
A long-handled rod allows for more casting distance. It covers more open water where long two-handed casts are required. The longer handle also gives you much more power when playing a large fish than a short-handled rod. It allows you to move line quicker. It provides better hook-sets from a distance. It provides a shock-absorber action and also can give you more control on fish during the fight.
Basic physics principles will tell you that a longer fishing rod gives you the preferred casting action, it allows you to cast at a greater distance by adding tip speed during the wider swing of the cast. The increased speed easily translates to farther casts. The longer the rod, the greater the mechanical advantage in casting, the further you can cast and the less effort is needed to reach that target. Longer rods are used for bigger bait and bigger fish. The bigger the fish, the longer the cast, so the longer the rod should be.
Longer rod is also allows for better line control, it affects your ability to fight against a fish. The greater length provides a shock-absorber action to protect line from breaking when a fish is flipping and flopping, pulling and running, jumping and swirling, or making a strong leap.
Longer length allows you to fish in a wide area of the water, on the other side of the river or allow you to reach a longer distance without changing the fishing spot. Longer rods will give you better leverage over the line and the bait and require smaller movement by angler to set the hook for effective striking. Using a longer rod will also give you a huge advantage when playing fish, keeping it away from snags.
A shorter, thicker fishing rod will be able to provide better leverage for "pumping" a powerful kind of fish from deeper water. The shorter rod provides more control and maneuverability, allowing you to flick cast in tight areas much easier.
When catch a big fighter longer rod allows you to extend the rod all the way out past the fish so that the fish will be located between you and the tip of the rod. If you apply a little pressure on the line in the direction opposite to where you are, the fish will start struggling and moving towards you which is exactly what you want to happen.
A telescoping fishing rod that fits easily in a suitcase or trunk would be great for the traveler who enjoys fishing with a longer rods, longer cast and as a result a bigger fish.
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A rod's Weight and Length should be matched to the weight of your line. The rod manufacturers determine the best match based on power and stiffness.
The range of line weights is consistent with where the rod falls within the power rating scale. Light rods use light line and lures and heavy rods use heavy line and lures.
Line weights range from 1 to 15. The lower line weights are for smaller fish, the higher line weights are for heavier fish.