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Largetooth flounder fish identification, Habitats, Fishing methods, fish characteristics

Largetooth flounder, Pseudorhombus arsius is a left-eyed flounder family Paralichthyidae, Large-tooth flounders found in temperate and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. They lie on the sea bed on their right side; both eyes are on the left side of the head. The eyed side is usually speckled with spots of various sizes and matches the color of its sandy surroundings. The height of the body is one-half of the total length. The mouth is large, filled with teeth and many have enlarged canine teeth. They grow to a length of over 30 cm and often used for human consumption
Largetooth-Flounder Largetooth flounder, Pseudorhombus arsius, also known as Large-tooth Flounder, Large-toothed Flounder, range in Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and eastern coast of Africa eastward to the coast of India and East Indies; northward to southern Japan, through East China Sea, eastward to Fiji and southward to northern coast of Australia. Taiwan: Penghu, North, West.
Body is oval-shaped, its depth 1.8 to 2.3 times in standard length. Head length 3.3 to 3.6 times in standard length; upper profile of head with a slight notch in front of upper eye. Eyes diameter 1/5th in length of head; interorbital space not concave; snout is as long as or longer than eye diameter, and closely approximating, being divided by a mere ridge. Origin of dorsal fin is in front of upper eye and nostrils on blind side. Cleft of mouth is deep, the maxilla usually nearly half as long as the head. Jaws and dentition nearly equally developed on both sides. Upper jaw is reaching below posterior edge of lower eye. Several pairs of moderately large canine teeth in anterior parts of both jaws of unequal size and in a single row, from 5 to 8 in the lower jaw on the ocular side, and 6 to 13 lateral teeth in lower jaw of blind side, stronger and more widely spaced than those of upper jaw. Gill rakers pointed, longer than broad. Flounder Anatomy
Gill-membranes united beneath the throat but not attached to the isthmus. Fin-rays simple; the dorsal fin commences on the snout. Dorsal fin separate from caudal fin, longest rays in last 3rd of dorsal; all except last three or four are unbranched; last five anal rays branched, each fin-ray has a row of small scales. Dorsal branch goes to base of 9th, 10th, or 11th ray. Pectoral fin soft rays are 2/3rds lengths of a head; equal on ocular and blind sides, pelvic fin bases of equal length. Pre-anal spine is a little obvious when present. Scales are ctenoid on the eyed side and cycloid on the blind side; largest in posterior portion of body; some on the maxilla. Scales are of moderate size or rather small, and extended on to the dorsal and anal. Lateral line is smooth, having a strong anterior curve above pectoral fins equal to half its length.

Key characters

Eyes on the left side, 5 to 10 pointed teeth in either jaw; lateral line have strong curve above pectoral fins. It is best separated from other members of its genus by the presence of two dark spots placed centrally on its dorsal surface. The first is located just behind the pectoral fin; the second is halfway between the first spot and the tail fin.
  • 71-84 dorsal fin rays
  • 53-62 anal fin rays
  • 11-13 pectoral fin rays
  • 69-81 lateral line scales
  • 6-13 lateral teeth in lower jaw
  • 36 vertebrae
  • Max. Size 50 cm, commonly to 30 cm
  • Largetooth-Flounder Anatomy

    Body is greenish or pale brownish, usually covered with variously sized rings, and often two dark blotches on straight and curved parts of lateral line, and a smaller blotch half-way to caudal-fin base. The species varies in color, closely matching the substrate it is resting on.

    Largetooth flounder found in shallow waters and estuaries, on mud and sand bottoms, to depths of 200 m. Juveniles common in brackish water. During spawning flounder are found in shallow water on sandbanks and close to shore. In winter they reside in deeper waters. They feed on benthic animals

    Largetooth flounder spawn only once a year for 3 to 4 months in shallow close to shore waters on sand bottoms. They spawn in a single batch. The spawning period is during April to July, with the peak in April and May. The size at first maturity is between 16 and 17 cm total length. Females always outnumbered males. Fecundity depends on total length and body weight.

    Fishing Methods:
    Most flounder are taken at night. They lie on the bottom buried under the sand with only their eyes protruding. Bottom fishing from a drifting boat across the sand flats is productive. Trolling lures along the bottom can be successful. Largetooth flounder will take almost any bait.
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